Category: CPU


Solution of VT-x/AMD-V hardware acceleration is not available on your system

Solution of VT-x/AMD-V hardware acceleration is not available on your system

solution of VT-x/AMD-V hardware acceleration is not available on your system

“VT-x/AMD-V hardware acceleration is not available on your system. Certain guests (e.g. OS/2 and QNX) require this feature and will fail to boot without it.”

The solution of that could be enabling the virtualisation option from the Bios, the next image is example of enabling the virtualisation on HP laptop.

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CPU several enhancements

CPU several enhancements, in addition to standard CPU functions, modern x86 processors
feature several enhancements. These include support for:

  1. MMX or 3DNow!
    Intel’s MMX tecnology is a set of microcode instructions that x86 CPUs use to improve the performance of multimedia applications and communications. MMX allows a single instruction to operate on multiple data items. This is referred to as Single Instruction Multiple Data or SIMD. More recently, these changes have been incorporated into Streaming SIMD Extensions, or SSE. The current version of SSE is 4.2
  2. Simultaneous multithreading: Hyper-Threading Technology from Intel and HyperTransport from AMD are forms of simultaneous multithreading or SMT. SMT is the ability of a single processor core to process more than one thread – a small set of instructions scheduled by an operating system to execute on a CPU- at the same time. It effectively simulates two virtual cores for every physical core. Most older CPUs handle multiple threads by dividing their time between the threads, depending on CPU demand. Multithreading enables a CPU to attend to multiple threads at once.
  3. Throttling: The CPU throttling is a method of running a CPU at lower voltage and speed than identified in its design specifications. This reduces the amount of heat generated and the energy consumed by the processor.
  4. Overclocking: Overclocking a computer means running its components at a higher speed and voltage than recommended by the manufacturer. Overclocking produces high heat levels and may void the manufacturer’s warranty. So it’s important to be very cautions if you overclock a processor, and to ensure that an appropriate cooling system is installed.
  5. Multi-core CPU: Multi-core processors have more than one CPU on the same processor die. This differs from a multi-processor system, which has more than one CPU socket on the motherboard. Dual, triple and quad-core CPUs are found in both server and desktop computers. Multi-core processor generate less heat, requiere less space on the motherboard, and consume less enery than multi-processor systems. They are also much faster than single-core CPUs.
  6. Virtualization: Virtualization enables you to run a number of virtual computers with different operanting system on single, physical host computer. Intel began to support virtualizaion with the Pentiwm 4 using VT-x technology, but not all modern Intel processors support virtualization. Second-generation virtualization is supported by Intel with the Extended Page Table or EPT extension. AMD developed support for virtualizavion called AMD-V with the Athleon 64. As with Intel CPUs, not all modern AMD processors support virtualization. AMD also supports page-table virtualization using Rapif Virtualization Indexing or RVI technology.

Pentium processor

The two main x86 CPU manufactures are
Intel and Advanced Micro Devices or AMD

The Pentium was Intel’s first named desktop processor. It had a 64-bit data bus and 32-bit address bus, and ranged in speed from 60 MHz to 233 MHz

In 1995, Intel introduced the Pentium Pro to the server market.
This processor had a 36-bit address bus instead of a 32-bit bus ranged in speeds from 150 Mhs to 200 Mhz

Pentium II processor
The Pentium II processor was introduced in 1997, and its design was a drastic departure from the PIn Grid Array or PGA, style processors
used until then. The Pentium II used a Single Edge Connector Cartridge, or SECC, that fitted into Slot 1 in the motherboard.

Pentium III processor
The Pentium III, released in 1999, originally included an SECC, but this was changed to a 370-pin PGA design. The Pentium III offered speeds of up to 1.4 GHz

Pentium 4
The Pentium 4, released in 2003, introduced many changes to the processor, and required a relatively fast Front Side Bus
or FSB. The Pentium 4 designs are the 423-pins PGA, the 478-pin PGA, and the 775-node Land Grid Array, or LGA.
The LGA775 design uses a square grid of contacts instead of pins. The Pentium 4 runs at speeds of up to 3.8 Ghz.
The Pentium 4 processor also increased the power requirements of motherboards. Supplemental power connections with 4/8 pin 12 V connections were added to support this new need for increased power.

Pentium M
The Pentium M line of processors was introduced in 2003 specifically for use in laptop computers. Pentium M processors are normally bundled with a particular motherboard and wireless technology, and branded as Centrino.

Pentium D
The Pentium D was released in 2005, and is Intel’s first microprocessor with two cores on the same ceramic package, or die. This allows the CPU to process multiple instructions simultaneously. The Pentium D runs at speeds of between 2.8 GHz and 3,2 Ghz per core.

Pentium Extreme Edition
The Pentium Extreme Edition or EE was released in December 2005. The Pentium EE worked only with the Intel 955X or NVidia nForce 4 SLI Pentium edition chipsets, making its hardware requirements highly specific.

Intel Core

Intel re-branded its processors in early 2006 as Intel Core. An Intel Core was the first Intel processor to be used in Apple Mac computers. There are several types of Intel Core CPUs. Core Duo, for example features a dual-core CPU.

Intel Core 2

The Intel Core 2 was the successor of the Intel Core, and was released in mid-2006. Like the Core series, the Core 2 series featured a Core 2 Solo, Core duo, and Core 2 Quad processor. There was also a Core 2 Extreme, which ran at a higher clock speed.

Nehalem processor

The Nehalem processor was released by Intel in 2008. Older motherboards and processors, such as the Core 2 Duo are not compatible with Nehalem technology. Nehalem processors had a 256-bit level 2 cache and a large level 3 cache up to 12 MB.

Intel introduced a new naming scheme for the Nehalem processors, with lines processors name i3, i5 and i7

Nehalem i3 processor
The Nehalem i processors have two cores with speeds up to 3.2 GHz, although Turbo-Boost features(Type of dynamic overclocking) were disabled. These processors are available in mobile versions that ran slower and used less power.

Nehalem i5 processor
The Nehalem i5s have four cores and some of them supports hyperthreanding, giving eight virtual cores. The mobile versions of the i5 had two cores.

Nehalem i7 processor
The i7s were the high-end processors released with Nehalem in 2008. They have two, four, or six cores.

Intel replaced the Nehalem microarchitecture with the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture in 2011. The model name i3, i5, i7 were retained but the processors use differetn socket arrangement and all of them use 32 nmm fabrication process. Low-cost 2 core Celeron G and Pentium G processors are available in the microarchitecture. The i3s in  this range have two cores and a 3 MB level 3 cache. However Turbo-Boost is disabled.

Sandy Bridge i5

The Sandy Bridge i5s have two or four cores and up to a 6 MB level cache.

The Sandy Bridge i 7s  are high-end processors with up to six cores and a 15 MB level 3 cache. The i7-3820 Extreme Edition runs at 3.3 GHz and up to 3.9 GHz with Turbo-Boost features and Hypertreading.  It uses the LGA1155 microarchitecture

AMD started producing CPUs in 1975 when it created a clone of Intel 8080, through reverse engineering. AMD’s line of Intel clones was highly successful, and its AM386 and AM486(clones of the Intel 80386 and 80486).

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